Jeffries and Treacher Family History


List of Occupations

This page contains a list of the occupations of our ancestors and a list of occupations carried out by other family members I have come across.   Some occupations may have been carried out by more than one person and one person may have carried out more than one occupation.   Most of the occupations have been obtained from census records but some have come from parish records and certificates. 

Occupations of Ancestors

Occupation Ancestor
Able Seaman Gunner Treacher, Frederick
Battery Preparation Jeffries,Jessie Rose (née Treacher)
Book Shop Assistant Jeffries,Jessie Rose (née Treacher)
Book Shop Manager Jeffries,Jessie Rose (née Treacher)
Cardboard Box Maker Jeffries,Jessie Rose (née Treacher)
Carman Treacher, Frederick
Carpenter (Journeyman) Cooper,James
Charwoman Bates or Betts, Mary Sophia (née Pryor)
Cook & Domestic Servant Abbott, Clara Ann (née Scarlett)
Crofter Flaws, John
Dairymaid Flaws, Agnes (née Riddoch)
Day Labourer Jeffries, Henry
Belcher, Ann
Dragoon Gardener, Simon
Drainpipe Maker Treacher, Edward
Dressmaker Treacher, Rose Ellen (née Abbott)
Farmer Riddoch, William
Farm Servant Flaws, Peter Nicholson McLaren
Foreman Jeffries, Jonathan Herbert
Gardener Belcher, William
Inwood, Charles (Jnr)
Goods Checker (British Rail) Treacher, Frederick
Green Grocer Taylor, Mary Ann (née Peace?)
Grocer's Assistant Jeffries, Jonathan Herbert
House Painter / Decorator Jeffries, George
Husbandman Abbott, John
Labourer Treacher, Frederick
Labourer (Agricultural) Abbott, Edward
Abbott, John
Abbott, Samuel
Bates or Betts, Richard
Bason, Mary
Catlin, William
Cooper, James
Cooper, William
Flaws, Peter Nicholson McLaren
Jeffries, Henry
Jeffries, Jonathan
Inwood, Charles (Jnr)
Scarlett, Charles William
Scarlett, Charlotte (née Amos)
Scarlett, William
Treacher, Edward
Treacher, William
Labourer (Brickfield) Treacher, Edward
Labourer (Dock) Carpenter, James
Fisher, John (Jnr)
Laundress Cooper, Mary (nee Inwood)
Jeffries, Elizabeth (née Bason)
Maintenance Fitter Jeffries, Jonathan George
Male Servant (MS) Flaws, Peter Nicholson McLaren
Mariner / Sailor Carpenter, James
Flaws, John
Turner, Isaac
Market Gardener Jeffries, Jonathan
Manglewoman Treacher, Emma (née Biggs)
Needlewoman Carpenter, Mary Ann (née Turner)
Packing (Foodstuffs) Jeffries,Jessie Rose (née Treacher)
Parlourmaid Abbott, Clara Ann (nee Scarlett)
Pickler (Journeyman) Jeffries, Jonathan Herbert
Ploughman Flaws, Peter Nicholson McLaren
Royal Artillery (Cadets Servant) Treacher, Robert
Royal Artillery (Driver) Treacher, Robert
Royal Artillery (Gunner) Abbott, Samuel
Treacher, Robert
Sawyer Cooper, James
Seamstress Bason, Elizabeth (Jnr)
Servant Cooper, Mary (née Inwood)
Jeffries, Margaret Ann (née Fisher)
Jeffries, Susan (née Cooper)
Servant (Domestic) Chalmers, Janet
Cooper, Susan
Flaws, Agnes (née Riddoch)
Flaws, Isabella (née Laughton)
Treacher, Rose Ellen (née Abbott)
TreacherJessie (née Flaws)
Servant (Farm) Flaws, Peter Nicholson McLaren
Servant (House) Scarlett, Emma (née Catlin)
Shipkeeper Carpenter, James
Shipwright Fisher, John (Jr)
Fisher, John (Snr)
Fisher, William
Waistcoat Maker Ross, Mary
Warehouse Foreman Jeffries, Jonathan Herbert
Warehouse Porter Jeffries, Jonathan Herbert
Woodsman Jeffries, Jonathan

Occupations of Other Family Members

  • Apprentice to Dressmaker
  • Assistant Chandler's Shopkeeper
  • Auctioneer
  • Backhouse Boy
  • Bailiff of County Court
  • Baptist Minister
  • Blacksmith
  • Blacksmith in Monumental Works
  • Blacksmith's Apprentice
  • Boot and Shoemaker
  • Boot Closer
  • Boot Maker (Master)
  • Carpenter
  • Carter
  • Chandler's Shopkeeper
  • Cheesemonger's Assistant
  • Coal Carter
  • Coffee and Eating House Keeper
  • Coffee House Worker
  • Congregational Minister
  • Cook
  • Coprolite Worker
  • Cordwainer
  • Cordwainer and Glover
  • Corn Chandler's Assistant
  • County Court Bailiff
  • Electric Cable Maker
  • Engaged in Coffee Shop
  • Foreman ? of Coalyard
  • Gardener
  • Gardening Boy
  • General Domestic Servant
  • General Labourer
  • General Servant
  • Golf Caddy
  • Grocer
  • Grocer and Draper
  • Grocer and Cowkeeper
  • Grocer's Assistant
  • Groom Domestic
  • Gunner, Royal Artillery
  • High Bailiff County Court
  • Hosier
  • Hosier and Tailor
  • Hosier Assistant
  • Hosier's Assistant Hab (Haberdashery?)
  • Housekeeper
  • Independant Minister of Providence Chapel
  • Independant Minister of Zionist Chapel
  • Independant Minister of Back Street Chapel
  • Ironer
  • Ironmonger
  • Joiner
  • Journeyman Painter
  • Journeyman Pickler
  • Journeyman Shipwright
  • Kitchenmaid Domestic
  • Labourer in Manure Factory
  • Labourer Railway
  • Labourer's Boy
  • Laundress
  • Laundryman
  • Living on own means
  • Master of Faringdon Union Workhouse
  • Matron of Faringdon Union Workhouse
  • Merchant's Clerk
  • Milkman
  • Milliner
  • Nurse Domestic Servant
  • Painter
  • Painter and Decorator's Assistant
  • Painter and Paperhanger
  • Pauper
  • Pauper Agricultural Labourer
  • Pensioner from the Police
  • Plumber Partner Employer
  • Policeman
  • Police Constable
  • Police Officer
  • Post Mistress
  • Poulterer
  • Printers? Machinist
  • Private in the London Regiment (London Scottish)
  • Publican
  • Railway Engine Fireman
  • Railway worker
  • Relieving Officer
  • Shoe Binder
  • Shoemaker
  • Shopkeeper
  • Shopman
  • Shopwoman
  • Sub Postmaster
  • Superannated Law Officer
  • Superintendant of Police
  • Sweetshop Owner
  • Upholsterer
  • Warehouse Porter
  • Yardman on Farm eg Cattle

Able Seaman, Gunner (Frederick Treacher)



Below is a list of the ships on which Frederick Treacher served and the periods of service.  Some of the "ships" are in fact shore bases.  The names and dates are taken from his service record.  During the war years he seems to have been allocated to a depot ship or a shore base and the name of another ship is shown in brackets.  Unfortunately, the service record is hand written and there are two names in brackets which are illegible.  It is known that HMS Truculent and HMS Tartar saw active service during the war and probably HMS Minos as well.  This ties in with the fact that the Victory Medal which he received was awarded to those who served in an overseas theatre of war.

The buttons on the right link to further information at Wikipedia (Wiki), (B-C) or various other sites (Var).  'Misc' in the fourth column means that there is information about the ship in the next section, Miscellaneous Ships.  This is information I came across some time ago, but where I cannot now find the sites from which it came.


Ship From To Wiki   B-C   Var   Misc  
HMS Impregnable 20/5/1901 5/6/1901 Wiki B-C    
HMS Lion 6/6/1901 30/10/1902 Wiki B-C    
HMS Agincourt 31/10/1902 15/1/1903 Wiki   Var  
HMS Majestic 16/1/1903 1/2/1904 Wiki B-C    
HMS Caesar 2/2/1904 13/2/1904 Wiki B-C    
HMS Firequeen 14/2/1904 26/1/1905     Var Misc
HMS Imogene 27/1/1905 26/1/1907       Misc
HMS Victory 1 27/1/1907 22/1/1907       Misc
HMS Excellent 23/6/1907 22/2/1908 Wiki B-C    
HMS Victory 1 23/2/1908 28/10/1908       Misc
HMS Jupiter 29/10/1908 31/5/1909 Wiki B-C    
HMS Victory 1 1/6/1909 9/8/1909       Misc
HMS Topaze 10/8/1909 31/7/1912 Wiki B-C    
HMS Minerva II 1/8/1912 28/8/1913 Wiki B-C    
HMS Dido II 29/8/1913 31/12/1913 Wiki B-C    
HMS Attentive II (HMS Tartar) 1/1/1914 17/9/1916       Misc
HMS Tartar 1/1/1914 17/9/1916 Wiki      
HMS Victory 18/9/1916 2/10/1916       Misc
HMS Attentive II (HMS Tartar) 3/10/1916 23/4/1917       Misc
HMS Tartar 3/10/1916 23/4/1917 Wiki      
HMS Victory 1 24/4/1917 6/5/1917       Misc
HMS Attentive II (HMS Truculent) 7/5/1917 21/5/1917       Misc
HMS Truculent 7/5/1917 21/5/1917 Wiki B-C    
HMS Attentive II (HMS Minos) 22/5/1917 31/1/1918       Misc
HMS Minos 22/5/1917 31/1/1918 Wiki      
HMS Attentive II (HMS Hecla) 1/2/1918 20/12/1918       Misc
HMS Hecla 1/2/1918 20/12/1918 Wiki      
HMS Victory 1 21/12/1918 6/3/1919 (Demob)       Misc


Miscellaneous Ships

This section contains some miscellaneous details of the ships on which Frederick Treacher served.

HMS Attentive II

HMS Attentive II was a base station at Dover from 1904 to 1914 and then a shore establishment from 1914 to 1919

HMS Firequeen

HMS Firequeen was a 212 foot, steel hulled freighter, originally named Candance and was purchased by the Royal Navy in 1882. She was commissioned with the name Firequeen as a general depot ship in Portsmouth in December 1899.  From 1 Feb 1905 she was the port admiral's flagship.  She was sold by the Royal Navy in 1920.  She later sank in the Bahamas and is now known as the Mahony Wreck.

HMS Imogene

HMS Imogene was an unarmed Special Services Vessel of 460 tons.  She was laid down as the Iron Screw Yacht Jacamar, purchased by the Admiralty while on the stocks and launched on the Clyde by Barclay Curle & Co in Yard No 309, on 20th April 1882.  On14 May 1919 she was sold to Ledger Hill and renamed Impey. In February 1923 she was sold on as Julius.

She served in the Mediterranean, and during WWI carried the Gallipoli commander, Hamilton, to Suvla Bay in 1915.

HMS Victory I

HMS Victory I was the Portsmouth Naval Barracks.  The Barracks opened in 1903, when the Flag CinC Portsmouth moved from HMS Excellent to the ship HMS Victory and then to shore.  The Barracks were then given the name HMS Victory.  On 1 Aug 1974 the barracks were renamed HMS Nelson.



From 1907 to 1999, a Field Gun Competion was held as part of the Royal Tournament at Earl's Court.  The competition was between Royal Naval Ports.  My maternal grandfather, Frederick Treacher, ran for the HMS Victory team in 1908 and 1909.  In 1908 his team were the winners and in the 1909 they were runners up to HMS Excellent.  

During the 1908 competition, Granddad sent three postcards to his wife-to-be.  In the first photograph, Granddad placed a dot on his back; he is bending slightly in front of the letter "Y"of the name "VICTORY".  The other team in the first photograph is, I think, HMS Vivid 'B'.

On the cards Granddad uses a phrase of the time, which I think was Our Love and True,which he abbreviates.

In September 2011, I watched a TV programme about postcards, part of which looked at the Language of Stamps in Edwardian times.  The program showed a key to stamp positions, which can be seen below.

The middle postcard has the stamp tilted to the left in the top right hand corner, which the key shows to mean "I am longing to see you".  The right-hand card has the stamp missing but the outline can be made out and this too is in the same position.  If the left hand postcard is held with the address upright then the stamp is straight and the right way up in the top right hand corner, which would mean "Have you forgotten me?".  However, Granddad has written the post card upside down, which puts the stamp straight and upside down in the bottom left hand corner.  This would mean "I am always true to you". (Although, strictly speaking, this should be a "Love Post" stamp.)  This chimes nicely with the "Our Love and True" messages.

I may be wrong in the interpretations, but, nonetheless, it is still rather touching.

There are also pictures below of a leaflet, one side of which is a part of the photo on the second postcard. Granddad is at the back in the centre.

Pictures of the winner's medal he received in 1908 are below. It was made into a brooch by his wife.

There are videos of several field gun runs at the Royal Tournament available on YouTube.

See links page for further info on the Competition.

The address on the postcards is Ferndale, Westcombe Park Road, Blackheath.  Kelly's directory for 1908 shows that there were six houses between Vanburgh Hill and Foyle Road with the house named Ferndale by the junction with Foyle Road, but it does not indicate which side of the road the houses were on.  There are six large houses now on the north side of the road between Vanburgh Road and Foyle Road, so the one by Foyle Road may be the actual house where Gran was in service.  The occupier and probably owner of Ferndale is named as Mr. Frank William Lucas M.A., B.SC., F.R.G.S, F.R. HIST. S. (Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.)  The 1901 and 1911 censuses shows Mr Lucas to be a headmaster of a grammar school.


crew in action crew at practice parade

crew in action message crew at practice message parade message

crew leaflet crew leaflet reverse stamps

field gun medal front field gun medal back


Frederick Treacher served throughout the first world war in the Royal Navy, and was awarded the following medals, which were nicknamed Pip, Squeak and Wilfred after popular cartoon characters.  The medals would have been worn in that order from left to right, but in the photographs the medals are in the order Squeak, Pip and Wilfred

The British War Medal (Squeak), for those who served overseas from 1914 to 1918.

This medal was instituted to record the successful conclusion of the First World War, but it was extended to cover the period 1919 - 20 and service in mine clearing at sea as well as participation in operations in North and South Russia, the Eastern Baltic, Siberia, the Black Sea and Caspian.  The medal is a circular, silver medal, 1.42 inches in diameter.  The obverse shows the King George V, bareheaded coinage effigy, facing left, with the legend: GEORGIVS V BRITT : OMN : REX ET IND : IMP : This profile is by Sir Bertram Mackennal.  On the reverse is a horseman (St. George, naked), armed with a short sword (an allegory of the physical and mental strength which achieves victory over Prussianism). The horse tramples on the Prussian shield and the skull and cross-bones. Just off-centre, near the right upper rim, is the sun of Victory. The dates 1914 and 1918 appear in the left and right fields respectively.  The medal has a plain, straight, non-swivelling suspender with a single-toe claw.  The watered ribbon is 1.25 inches wide, and consists of seven stripes: blue (0.125"), black (0.0625"), white (0.125"), orange centre (0.625" wide), white (0.125"), black (0.0325"), and blue (0.125").  The recipient's name, number and rank is engraved on the rim for the first issue.

The 1914-15 Star (Pip)

The star was awarded to all who saw service an any theatre of war against the central powers between 05 August 1914 and 31 December 1915 except those eligible for the 1914 Star.

The medal is a bronze four-pointed star, 1.75 inches wide and 2.25 inches top to bottom, with its uppermost point replaced by crown.  Across the face of the star are two crossed swords, (blades upward) with the blades and hilts protruding to form four additional points of the star.  In the centre of the obverse side is a scroll with 1914-15.  This is surrounded by a laurel wreath and on the bottom is the Royal Cypher GV (large G with smaller V inside).  The reverse is plain, but is engraved with the recipient's number, rank and name.  A suspension ring at the top of the crown is stamped out solid with the star.  The watered ribbon (1.25" wide), is shaded left to right: red, white, and blue.

The Victory Medal (Wilfred), for those who served in an overseas theatre of war.

The medal, in yellow bronze, was awarded to all ranks of the fighting forces, to civilians under contract, and others employed with military hospitals who actually served on the establishment of a unit in a theatre of war between 05 August 1914 and 11 November 1918 (inclusive).  It was also awarded to members of the British Naval mission to Russia 1919 - 1920 and for mine clearance in the North Sea between 11 November 1918 and 30 November 1919.  This medal was never issued alone, it was issued to those that already had the 1914 or 1914 - 15 Stars and most of those who had the British War Medal.  It is often known as the Allied War Medal because the same basic design and double rainbow ribbon were adopted by thirteen other Allied nations (though the US alone issued it with campaign clasps). The Union of South Africa produced a version with a reverse text in English and Dutch.  Only the Mentioned-in-Despatches multiple-leaved emblem is worn on this medal when it was awarded for WWI. There were no other bars.  The medal is a circular, copper medal, lacquered bronze, 1.42 inches in diameter.  The obverse shows the winged, full-length, full-front, figure of Victory, with her left arm extended and holding a palm branch in her right hand.  The reverse shows the legend THE GREAT / WAR FOR / CIVILIZATION / 1914 - 1919 in four lines, surrounded by a wreath, with dots below the words.  A ring (0.5" diameter) passes through a loop fixed to the top of the medal. The ring moves forwards and backwards but not sideways.  The watered ribbon is 1.5 inches (38 mm) wide, and consists of nine coloured stripes: violet, blue, green, yellow, red (centre), yellow, green, blue, and violet. (Double Rainbow) DATES  The recepient's name, number and rank are engraved on the rim for the first issue.

Underneath the medals in the first photo is Frederick's hatband from HMS Imogene, on which he served from 27 January 1905 to 26 January 1907.


medals obverse medals reverse medal records


Frederick Treacher was mentioned in despatches during WWI and his name appears in the Supplement to the London Gazette in 1919, but the reason why he was mentioned is not known.

The mention would have entitled him to wear an oak leaf cluster on the Victory Medal.  Unfortunately, the cluster has been lost, but the hole where it would have been attached is visible in the photograph above of the obverse sides of the medals.

The image of the Victory Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster shown below is by kind permission of Sarah Jane Framing and Medals.  The second thumbnail is the Royal Navy record of the mention and of the sending of the Victory Medal and the second is the gazette entry.

medal records despatches gazette


Key to docs -
  A.B. is Able Seaman
  O.N. is Official Number
  215148 is his service number
  Po. is Portsmouth
  Party - sent to recipient.
  X in Service Column - No longer in Service.

Service Record

Frederick served in the Royal Navy from 1901 to 1919.


service record


General information on service records can be found on the
National Archives site

Gunnery Record

Frederick became an Able Seaman Gunner in 1907.


gunnery record 1 gunnery record 2

frederick treacher uniform colour frederick treacher uniform colour to bw This studio portrait has the word "Wanted" on the back, which suggests that it may have been arranged by the Royal Navy.  As there are no badges on his uniform, it was probably taken during his first spell on HMS Victory from 27 Jan 1907 to 22 Jun 1907.  The photo was coloured by Mum's boyfriend, Sidney Chapman, which I think is rather a shame as it makes him look as though he is taking part in an Amateur Dramatic production.  I have, therefore, added a black and white version.

frederick treacher brother bob Frederick is wearing the hatband of HMS Topaze on which he served from 10 August 1909 to 31 July 1912.  On his left arm is his Able Seaman's chevron and on his right arm his Gunner's badge.  He is with his brother, Bob, who was a gunner in the Royal Artillery and was probably based at Woolwich, which is where this photo may well have been taken.

Gunner, Royal Artillery (Samuel Abbott, Robert Treacher and Arthur Treacher)

Samuel Abbott

Samuel Abbott joined the Royal Artillery on 25th September 1873 in Ipswich and was discharged in Woolwich on 11th October 1895.

These are his army pension records -

Egyptian Campaign

Samuel served with F Battery 1st Brigade Royal Artillery in the Egyptian Campaign from 11 Aug 1882 to 19 Oct 1882, during which time he took part in the battle of Tel-El-Kebir, for which he was awarded the Egyptian Medal (with clasp for Tel-El-Kebir) and the Egyptian Bronze Star (also known as the Khedive's Bronze Star).

These are the Royal Artillery Records relating to the award of the two medals -

Further information -

Good Conduct Medal

Samuel was awarded the Good Conduct Medal together with a £5 gratuity.


samuel and clara abbott

This photo shows Samuel Abbott in his everyday uniform.  Because the address of the photographer on the back of the photo is in Ipswich, it seems likely that it would have been taken before 1891, by which time they were both in Woolwich, and that it may have been taken for their wedding in 1883, when they were both 27 years of age.  Samuel appears to have a ribbon next to the second button from the top.  If this represents his Egyptian Campaign medal, then it would place the photo after October 1882.

There is a colour print of an RA Gunner's uniform here

Robert Treacher

Robert Treacher joined the Royal Artillery on 12 September 1870 at Harrow, Middlesex.  He was AWOL from 3 June 1873 to 2 November 1874, for which he was sent to prison for four months.  He was discharged at Woolwich on 29 February 1894, after which he worked as a Cadets Servant until his death.  From 14 Oct 1878 to 19 March 1894 he was in India at St Thomas Mount and Wellington.  Robert and Jessie Flaws married just before he went and she went with him.

These are his army pension records -

Arthur Treacher (3 March 1916 - 18 October 2007)

My Uncle, Arthur Treacher, served as a gunner in a Heavy Battery of the Royal Artillery throughout the Second World War.

arthur treacher in uniform These two photos of Arthur have no information on them.  The one on the left is the earlier one and as there is no badge on his cap it may mean that it was taken soon after he was called up.  The one on the right was probably taken near the end of his time in the army.

arthur treacher medals obverse arthur treacher medals reverse These photos are of the five medals which he was awarded.  Unlike Granddad's medals from World War 1, these medals are not personalised in any way.  The decision not to engrave these medals was laid out in the original regulations relating to World War 2 medals.  You can see by the condition of the ribbons, that Arthur never wore them.

ww2 medals description front ww2 medals description back These photos are of the letter which was sent with the medals.  The medals which Arthur was awarded are marked with a tick.

ww2 medals box front ww2 medals box back These photos are of the box in which the medals were sent to 82 Brewery Road, Plumstead.  The house still exists.


11th Light Dragoons (Simon Gardiner)

Simon Gardener, the maternal grandfather of Samuel Abbott, joined the 11th Light Dragoons on 2 April 1807, probably in Hounslow, and was discharged, perhaps in Suffolk, on 23 July 1814, because of a gunshot wound.  The records show that he received his wound on 25 September 1811 during the Peninsular War. On that date the 11th Dragoons were in action at El Bodon near Cuidad Rodrigo.  See the second link below for further details.  He is described as a good soldier.

These are his discharge papers and admission record for the Royal Hospital, Chelsea -

Other Occupations



The usual title for a worker on the land was Agricultural Labourer (Ag Lab), but variants were Farm Labourer, Farm Servant (FS), Male Servant (MS) and Day Labourer.

Fifteen of our ancestors and many other family members were Agricultural Labourers, but only in a few cases are we able to see a little beyond the general title.  In the 1851 census, Peter Nicholson McLaren Flaws is described as a ploughman.  In the 1841 census and at the birth of his 7th child in 1846, Jonathan Jeffries is described as a woodsman and at the marriage of his sixth son in 1873 he is described as a Market Gardener.  In the 1861 and 1871 census, James Cooper is described as a Sawyer.

Jessie Rose Treacher

pioneer bookshop Mum worked in the Pioneer Bookshop in New Road, Woolwich for several years until 1974.  In this photo one of the tram crew is standing with his hands behind his back looking into the window of the bookshop.  The photo was taken before July 1952, but the frontage is much the same as when Mum worked there.  At the time Mum worked there the shop was owned by Mr Eric Norris and Mr Sedgwick and run by Mr Norris.  Mr Norris was something of an eccentric and his obituary in the Daily Telegraph is an interesting read.

In 1974, WH Smith opened a new store in Powis Street, Woolwich and Mum was taken on as the part-time manager of the book section.  She stayed there until she retired in 1980, although about a year before then she gave up the managerial job and worked as an assistant.  The shop was on two floors of Kent House, which had previously been occupied by Garret's Department Store, where I had worked on Saturdays and in school holidays, first in the hardware department and then in the carpet department.  (My first pay packet for a Saturday was 19s7d - £1 less 5p National Insurance.)

pioneer bookshop This is Mum in the book department sometime in the 1970's

pioneer bookshop This is at the leaving party for the general manager, Mr Haynes, on the left.  The woman on the right is Joyce.

pioneer bookshop This is probably Mum's leaving do in 1980.

pioneer bookshop Mum's Union Card.

Jonathan George Jeffries

indenture indenture verso These two photos are of the Indenture document showing that Dad commenced his apprenticeship in Practical Engineering with Charles Westwood of 82 Bargery Road, Catford, London on 12 June 1924 and completed it successfully on 12 June 1929.  Electoral Registers show that the address was Mr Westwood's home address.  It is not known where the factory was.  In the bottom corner of the Indenture, there is the signature of the witness Frederick George (....), said to be a secretary to a limited company Napier (.....) of E14.  E14 would have been close to where Dad was living at the time.

apprenticeship works This is Dad's union card showing that he was enrolled into Section 1 of the Millwall Branch of the Amalgamated Engineering Union on 17 June 1929.

By the mid-1930s, Dad was working for the Cooperative Wholesale Society in Silvertown.  His father was the foreman, so perhaps he used his influence to get Dad a job once his apprenticeship was completed.  In 1940, the factory was destroyed in a bombing raid and he was relocated to Luton.  After a year or so, he was sent to the Coop's factory in Leman Street, London, where he remained until his retirement.

apprenticeship works Mum thinks that this photo may have been taken during Dad's apprenticeship.  Dad is second from the left, wearing a flat cap and facing away from the camera.

indenture verso indenture verso indenture verso These three photos are of an explanation of how to backflush a laundry boiler.  They are in Dad's handwriting and are on headed paper from the CWS, perhaps from the 1940s.  I found them tucked into A Grammar of the English Language by Willam Cobbett, published by Ward, Lock & Co., Limited as part of their series of Useful Books.  The author is the William Cobbett of Rural Rides fame.  The edition is not dated so I do not know whether it was a school book or whether it was for a liberal studies part to the apprenticeship.  The book was originally published in December 1819 with the subtitle especially for the Use of Soldiers, Sailors, Apprentices and Plough-Boys, selling 100,000 copies in the first ten years.  The back of the papers are blank daily time sheets from the Engineering Department.

works group CWS works, Leman St, Silvertown, London on a date unknown - Dad is 4th from left at back.  The panelling at the back has been patched up with a cardboard box for Co-op pure butter.

cricket team CWS Works Cricket Team.  Dad is 3rd from right in back row.

retirement photo Retirement Presentation at the CWS works, Leman St, Silvertown, London in 1972.

Can I do you now, Sir?

          Mrs Mopp, ITMA

Clara Abbott, née Catlin (Scarlett?)

retirement photo Clara is shown as being a Domestic Servant in the 1871 census at the age of 15, whilst living at the Royal Standard Public House, Mount Street, Ipswich.  It is not known whether she was a servant for the pub or was just lodging there.  In the 1881 census she is shown as a cook and domestic servant at 1 Paget Road, Ipswich, the home of Mr William Curling, a Seed Merchant.  Clara was one of four servants.  From 1881 to 1883 she was a parlour maid at Torwood, Wimbledon Park Road, which was used by F Battery 1st Brigade Royal Artillery. This is her reference on leaving Torwood to marry.

Rose Ellen Treacher

Mum thinks that Gran had to leave school at the age of 13 to look after her brothers, presumably because her mother, Clara, was an alcoholic.  By the age of 15, in the 1901 census, she is shown as being a Domestic Servant but living at home.  In 1908 we know from the postcards, which Granddad sent to her from the Royal Tournament, that she was in service at Ferndale, Westcombe Park Road.  The 1908 electoral register shows the voter's name as Frank William Lucas.  The house is one of about thirty in the road with no house number.  Ferndale is listed as the twentieth house after number 190 and the seventeenth after Christ Church Vicarage.  It seems as though the house has now gone, as much of the even numbered side of the road has been rebuilt and the numbers do not now go up to 190.  There is a block of flats called Ferndale Court, which seems to be in about the right place to be on the site of Ferndale.  In the 1901 census Mr Lucas is said to be the headmaster of a grammar school, and the roads which are included in the same ward as Ferndale suggest this area too.  Mum thinks that it may have had army connections, but there is nothing in the censuses to support this.  Ferndale also appears in the 1891 census when a Banker's Clerk and his family is in residence.  It is not in the 1881 census and Westcombe Park Road does not seem to have existed in the 1871 census.  It is not in the 1911 census.

retirement photo Nothing is known for certain about this Money Order, or even whether the envelope is the one in which it originally came.  If it is the correct envelope, then the address would date it to about 1901 to 1904.  The date on the order seems to be the 1 October.  The order is from the Army, so is presumably something to do with her father, Samuel.  Now Samuel died on the 1 October 1904, so the order may have been pension owing to him or perhaps a death gratuity, although it seems unlikely that it would have been issued on the day of death.  £5 2s 9d would have been a lot of money then, so it seems strange that it was not cashed.  Perhaps this was his regular pension and could not be cashed because of his death.


Others who have worked as a domestic servant are Mary Coooper (née Inwood), Margaret Ann Jeffries (née Fisher), Susan Jeffries (née Cooper), Janet Chalmers, Agnes Flaws (née Riddoch), Isabella Flaws (née Laughton), Jessie Treacher (née Flaws), Emma Scarlett (née Catlin).

I must go down to the sea again,
To the lonely sea and sky.
I left my vest and socks there,
I wonder if they're dry.

                               Spike Milligan

Frederick Treacher

Granddad's career in the Royal Navy is dealt with elsewhere in the Occupation Section.

James Carpenter

James Carpenter is described as a mariner in the 1851 census.  He is not shown in the 1841 census, so he was probably at sea; his wife is shown with her parents.  By the time of his daughter, Margaret Ann's, christening on 17 July 1853, he was working as a Dock Labourer, a job that he was also doing in the 1861 census.  No occupation is shown in the 1871 census.

sailing ships poplar In the 1881 census James is shown as being a Shipkeeper on the SS Castlemaine in Poplar.  I thought at first that SS Castlemaine might be the steamer owned at some time by the Black Ball Line of Australian Packets, which sailed between the UK and Australia and New Zealand.  However, the Assistant Curator of the Liverpool Maritime Museum says in an e-mail that this ship sank in a storm off Ireland in 1881 before the census.  He said that the Lloyd's register shows another Castlemaine (Ship number 77002) built in 1877, belonging to J & E Wilson of London and registered with the Port of London.  This SS Castlemaine ran aground and was wrecked at Barnard's Wharf in the Wyre Channel, Morecambe Bay on a voyage from Taganrog to Fleetwood with a cargo of wheat on the 14th October 1891.  Further information about the ship can be found here.

The photograph, taken about the time of the 1881 census, is of sailing ships moored in East India Docks, which was only a mile or two from the Poplar Dock.

The Merchant Navy Seaman Records 1835 - 1941

In the Merchant Navy Seaman Records on Findmypast there are entries for only two seamen with the name James Carpenter and based in London and we will see from the place of birth and date of birth that the records included here almost certainly belong to "our" James.

sailing ships poplar This Merchant Navy Record was issued in London on 9 December 1944 and says that, when not employed, James resided at St Georges East.  This is actually the parish of St. George in the East.  This tallies with the 1841 census for James's wife Mary, which shows her living in the parish, while James was at sea.  Also, in the 1861, 1871 and 1881 census, James gives the parish as his place of birth.

James's date of birth on this document is given as 17 July 1813, and we can see how this compares with the estimate ages on other documents -

        Document           Age from document           Actual age based on M.N. Record  
        1851 Census           36         37
        1861 Census         46         47
        1871 Census         57         57
        1881 Census         67         67
        Death Cert         77         76


I would say that, in the light of the above, there is little doubt that these records refer to "our" James.

The record also shows that James first went to sea as an apprentice in 1823, when he would have been aged 9 or 10.  He was 5 ft. 4¾ in. tall and had dark hair, a dark complexion and blue eyes.


merchant seamen from 1845 to 1854 This photograph is from a book listing the names of merchant seamen from 1845 to 1854.  James's name is the at the top of the third column, one of nineteen seamen with the name James Carpenter.  His ticket number, 6.990, agrees with the previous record.  The only other seaman with the name James Carpenter and based in London is further down the list with a different ticket number.

1835 36 record This record is from 1835 - 36 and James appears at the top of the page.  It shows that on 9 July 1836 he belonged to a ship called Vansittart.  His age is shown as 22, which tallies with the date of birth given on the first record.  After his name is the letter 'B', but I do not know what this means.

sailing ships poplar In this document headed 'Reference to Voyages' for the period 1835 to 1840, James is again said to be age 22 when the entry was first made, and again there is the letter 'B' after his name.  It shows that he had voyages on ships called Vansittart, Cholmly, Laurel, Itinerent, Amathyst, Margaret, David Owen and Wensby Dale, between July 1936 and December 1838.

Isaac Turner

Isaac was James Carpenter's father-in-law and he is shown as a mariner in the 1841 census.

The Merchant Navy Seaman Records 1835 - 1941

There are records for three seamen called Isaac Turner and born in London.  One group of records definitely belongs to Isaac's son and one group of records belongs to an Isaac born about 1808 and died 1843, whom I cannot place. This leaves just a single record which may belong to this Isaac.

sailing ships poplar This record of voyages shows Isaac's age as 53, and was presumably his age at the time of the first recorded voyage which was December 1835, which would give him a year of birth of about 1782.  The only other document we have with his age on is the 1841 census, on which it is given as 60.  Normally the ages of adults is rounded down to the nearest five years, which would give a range from 1777 to 1781, but there are other adults on the same page where the age has not been rounded.  I think it likely that this voyages record belongs to Isaac.  The record shows journeys on just two ships Itinerant and Jarrow.  James Carpenter also served on Itinerant but not at the same time as Isaac.

John Flaws

There are three documents showing that John Flaws was a sailor.  They are the birth, marriage and death registrations of his son, Peter.  The death registration also shows that he later became a crofter.

William Fisher, John Fisher (Snr) and John Fisher (Jnr)

Three consecutive generations who worked as shipwrights in the London Docks.